Sunday, April 15, 2018

O Syria!

-         Manprasad Subba

Many nights have passed
Since Syria has not been able to sleep a wink in my eyes
Many days have passed
Since Syria, fallen unconscious,
Has not been able to wake up in my eyes
O friend! Do not ask about the map of Syria
Battered and bleeding face of any child
Is what they call Syria
The earth bleeds
And the blood flows upon blood
Even the Mediterranean Sea cannot wash them away.
There you can see the map of Syria.

Having lost the leg of a tottering baby,
The highway has lost its journey.
Having lost an arm of a baby,
The breeze has lost its sense of touch.

The smiling eyes of the sun
Hit by the splinter of bomb
Are suddenly swollen shut
And dreams have fled
The sky is swallowed by the billowing arsenic smoke
And all the beauties have vanished
Syria is screaming  
From beneath the earth
Buried under the debris of crumbled time

O Seat of power! O Superpower!
How many thousands of ears do you need
To hear this scream?
Which latest model of binocular do you need
To see this face of Syria?
O Seat of power that breathes chemical breath,
How many millions of lungs do you want?
O Superpower that laughs hatching on the bombs,
How many millions
Of baby futures do you want?

O Picasso!
I see you writhing in your tomb
To paint another Guernica,
The twenty-first century Guernica on the canvas of Syria!

Syria is the name of my mother,
My elder sister, my younger sister and my daughter
Syria is the name of my father,
My elder brother, my younger brother and my son
It’s also my own name!
But at this moment, O Syria!
I can do nothing
But to sit in a distant corner
And shed these words from my eyes      

O Commanders of creeds!
Dip your tongues in the ponds of innocent bloods
And let your tongues know the taste of innocence
Those tongues would speak of paradise
But this piece of earth has turned into hell
Where the innocent souls have been dumped

O God!
Why are you so eerily mute?
We are waiting for your voice from heaven…
But how long will it be before you speak?

Monday, April 2, 2018

A Few Love Poems

This Aching Joy

Why is this pain so sweet?
Or am I already turned into a masochist
At this moment,
bearing on the shoulders
all the suffering of the world
I am willing to walk uphill to Calvary.
Can a joy be so painful?
I am no longer contained in my own self.
O Eyes in search of happiness!
Come to me –
I will give you the diamond beads of tears
blended with my smile.
shall I take them all into my embrace
and reveal the mystery of this aching joy?


What is it that I’m possessed by?
At one moment,
I see myself in the gloomy silence
Of a guilty face;
Next moment in elation
I go dancing green leaves on the trees.
Sometimes I am gripped by the graveness
That fills the hall of a condolence meeting.
Sometimes like a fine morning horizon
I keep smiling.
What’s wrong with me?
Now I feel my breath
Choked in my throat,
Now I feel tickled
And released in peals of laughter.
Sometimes I go shrinking in embarrassment,
Sometimes riding on the wings of ecstatic wind
I go around humming a new tune.

As you fingered...

As you fingered the earth of my body
a sensation sprouted on it,
started growing quietly
covering the entire field
with its tickling vines
and smooth shiny leaves
while sending roots deep down
into my heart
that throbs whispering – love… love… love…

Walking along the Road

That day
we walked along the ancient road,
as ancient as primeval human emotions
or as the beginning of civilization.
But I was unknowingly overwhelmed
by the fresh smell of stones and earth
as if they were just turned up
as in some road being newly constructed.

Did you not feel so, dear?

Like the spades
digging soft earth rhythmically
our footsteps were falling on the ground,
and standing on the edge of the road,
we scanned the distant hills
and valleys thousands of years old
which but appeared to me
like some exotic land
newly discovered by the Columbus of my eyes.

Did you not feel so, my Love?

Those Moments at a Roadside

Seated at the edge of time,
whatever we spoke to each other
was not a talk
between mythical Madhu and Malati.
The words we uttered
were the moments we lived together.
We are very much here,
just like the grass
grown in the crevices of rocks.
Even when someone
sees in them nothing but illusion
how can those moments we lived be any different?
How can the truth we envisioned in them
be replaced?
Our unrestrained laughter then
was not for some toothpaste advertisement.
The words we spoke to each other
were not rehearsed for a theatrical play.
With the moments emancipated
from the circumference of a clock
I was far away
from the bazaar of consumerism,
escaped also from the bounds of pragmatism.
I am talking of the trust and confidence
we lived in those moments.
I am afraid
these words may sound absurd to you now!


Madhu and Malati: Protagonists of an old popular romantic fantasy.


No, I knew not at all
that I would ever go baring myself
in front of you in this manner
I know not
when I,
one after another,
put off my honour and dignity
and laid them at your feet
Even the Karna-kavach of my self-respect
I have torn off my chest
and handed it to you, smiling
Now I am so disarmed
a prod with your little finger is enough
to make me bleed

The Love We Lived

Now, there’s no longer the pain
I had suffered from that wound.

There’s only a fossil of that pain.
Anything can be done with this fossil.
It can even be played like a toy.
Rest assured.

There was a time
when we were in love. Weren’t we?
During that tiny fragment of time
we were lovers.
But falling from the edge of our eyes
to the ground of transience,
that fragment of time disappeared.
Now, I realize –
what happened then had to happen that way.

You dared to throw away
the usualness of everyday affairs 
together with your broken-heeled sandals.
I too feel like laughing
at the foolish dream
that it would last for all time. 
We rather live many a usualness –
fragment / frag / ment / of usu/ al/ ness/ es!

The moment of love we lived as one
is a truth that lives eternally in our memory.
But our promises were dreams
we saw in our deep sleep.
A moment was there in which
you and I were one single embrace.

On the muddy path of uncertainty
I go stepping on the stones of moments.
I live moment.

Manprasad Subba’s The Primitive Village and Other Poems: A Critical Review
                                                                                                            -  Binod Pradhan

A text is a device conceived in order to produce its model reader. I repeat that this reader is not the one who makes the “only right” conjecture. A text can foresee a model reader entitled to try infinite conjectures. The empirical reader is only an actor who makes conjectures about the kind of model reader postulated by the text. Since the intention of the text is basically to produce a model reader able to make conjectures about it, the initiative of the model reader consists in figuring out a model author that is not the empirical one and that, in the end, coincides with the intention of the text.

                     Umberto Eco, Interpretation and Overinterpretation: World, History, Texts [1990]

I. The Poet and Poetry
Poetry is preeminently the art of language where the poet continuously reorganizes the vast complex web of communication and Manprasad Subba is unarguably one such poet in the contemporary Indian Nepali literature who is occupied not only with the intensification and enlargement of the techniques of experience but with the evaluation of its forms and structures as well. The book ‘The Primitive Village and Other Poems’ published by  Sahitya Akademi in the year 2013 is a self-translation of Manprasad Subba’s collection of Nepali poems ‘Aadim Basti ra Anya Kavitaharu’ which was first published in October 1995; this collection had bagged him the Sahitya Akademi award in the year 1998. A close reading of these poems indicates that the poet is not only concerned with the immediate relations of the individual experience or with judgment but he has been well aware of the extensive implications of his world. There is an aesthetic underpinning in the form that he uses to array the experiences and thoughts which is strongly sensed in his translations as well.
The original poems in this collection can be traced to be written from the 1980s onwards and it seems to be a phase when the poet’s creative sensibilities were greatly influenced by the modernistic aesthetics. The existential crisis surfeiting the zeal of iconic modularity designs the theme of the poetry in this collection. The core ambience each of these poems reflects is that of decentralized, disintegrated fragmented human world and human life with multilayered complexities that turns oblique and impassionate that camouflages the myopic reality. In ‘On the Bank of the Ganga’ there are chains of signs interlinking to cultural demographic systems, for example the poet tries to represent ‘Ganga’ as an image of sanctity or purity but he rejects himself to be purified with the water of Ganga. The poem demythifies the cult image of the holy water frolicking a kind of irony. The irony is released to its ultimate vehemence when he says; “Having already taken bath in the bathroom/ O Ganga,/ I have come to bathe in your riverness”. The sole tone of ‘riverness’ embodies the cultural, ritual and co-historical significance with which the poet wants to involve himself but not with a preordained notion rather subverting and debunking the culturally constructed mythological stratifications. So ‘bathroom’ becomes something extravagantly opposed to ‘riverness’ of the Ganga as bathroom is a place for physical cleansing whereas the Ganga is a place for spiritual cleansing. Thus, the bipolarity of images are contused and fused which determines the poetic mechanism that Manprasad Subba is trying to build; but a doubt or query may arise that whether the poetic usage of words- ‘bathroom’ and ‘Ganga’ is limited to its literal sense of meaning or does it carry a wider scope of meanings- are they paralleled to some metaphor, allusions, allegory, double sense that bears a sign for multiple signified; as I.A. Richards mentions, “. . . The wild interpretations of others must not be regarded as the antics of incompetents, but as dangers that we ourselves only narrowly escape, if, indeed, we do. We must see in the misreadings of others the actualisation of possibilities threatened in the early stages of our own readings. The only proper attitude is to look upon a successful interpretation, a correct understanding, as a triumph against odds. We must cease to regard a misunderstanding as a mere unlucky accident. We must treat it as the normal and probable event.” But notions regarding the texture, tones and criticisms of poetry should not be limited to Richard’s argument of “their effects upon feelings” because these associations employed by the poet also construct the forms of the poetry.  To make this sound more appropriate there is a certain statement that will clarify it:

A semiotic programme, studying the operation of individual signs in literary texts as opposed to broader elements of textual or discourse structure, emphasises the way in which meanings are produced and organised into various areas of experience through binary oppositions. Oppositions between words are deliberately exploited by literary texts to extend and multiply meanings. For example, the opposition between 'sun' and 'moon' is such a powerful one that it can signify almost anything. It has been used to signal the following distinctions: male/female, strength/weakness, reason/ emotion, constancy/ fickleness. In D.H.Lawrence's England, My England Egbert's fair hair and blue eyes contrast with Winifred's nut-brown hair and nut-brown eyes to signify an opposition between idealism and earthiness, for example. I take it that this example illustrates one of Eco's main points (e.g. in Eco 1979) that literary texts typically 'overcode'. In Eco's terms, in 'open' literary texts the process of semiosis is given free rein. Key words, or signifiers, in such texts come to generate a wide range of further meanings or signified.”

-Poetic Thoughts and Poetic:A Relevence Theory Account of the Literary use of Rhetorical Tropes and  Schemes. Adrian Pilkington, University College London, May 1994

The poem ‘Wine’ tries to amplify poet’s sublime accelerated prowess which reveals the substratum engulfed in some lines that continuously transmits the poet’s inner and outer forms of harmony. The wine entwines as exclaimer of life force which is embodied in a more trans-cultural sphere with the Dionysian myth- “Please, Dionysus! Pour some more”. The poetic craft in this poem is the parallelism that the poet has drawn between the wine and his inner desires-
“Descending down and down in this glass
I’ve remained mere a gulp
Replenish this glass once again”
Here ‘glass’ can mean one’s life that is eventually coming to an end, ‘remained mere a gulp’ could be a reference to the last breath that one is left with but this end could be surpassed through the life force i.e. the wine, hence there comes a remark-“Replenish this glass once again”. All he seeks for is the revilement of life force that could only be perched by wine. If his need for replenishment is not fulfilled then his self might never grow or explore further; he believes in renewing old facets with new charisma. ‘Wine’ can be a symbolical asset of impetus or stimulator. He longs for a reformation upon himself discarding death; rather he wants to defy death with the exhilarating essence that will be vested upon him with the sensational attribute of wine which could also have a spiritual connotation:

“Do not make me meet with
an end of an earthen cup
thrown by a traveler’s unfeeling hand
out of the running train”

A mere assumption can be  drawn that “an end of an earthen cup” denotes the role of death  upon the earthly life or an ultimate end of something that once had an existence/ significance/ essence of its own. It seizes to hold its essence and throws a reflection upon the impact of time upon all animate and inanimate objects of the world, hence time becomes as an agent who determines the durability of each essence. The role of time can be depicted in the lines, “out of the running train”. Time is a component that travels continuously taking everyone inside it. In general the poet’s intra- time spectrum of time and its influence upon him can be broken only by the eternal elation that can be salubrious and different than the normal vision of life. The poet’s quest and desire is much longer and acrogenic; he is not going to settle or agree ‘just for this much inebriation’. This poem has an invoking tone musing to Dionysus who is the God of wine and celebration in the Greek mythology. Thus, the undertextual meaning of wine can be the vigor for life not bound by indoctrination through which his sole self can be metamorphosed into oleander existence.

The content of the poem should not be the sole concern in modern theoretical discourse-"Form is content-as-arranged; content is form-as-deployed", Helen Vender.  For instance Susan Sontag mentions:
“Though the actual developments in many arts may seem to be leading us away from the idea that a work of art is primarily its content, the idea still exerts an extraordinary hegemony. I want to suggest that this is because the idea is now perpetuated in the guise of a certain way of encountering works of art thoroughly ingrained among most people who take any of the arts seriously. What the overemphasis on the idea of content entails is the perennial, never consummated project of interpretation. And, conversely, it is the habit of approaching works of art in order to interpret them that sustains the fancy that there really is such a thing as the content of a work of art.”

-Susan Sontag, Against Interpretation, Picador Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1961, (page 5)

A diabolical interpretation theory appears again and again with the cultural and academic standardization which can be summed as follows:
1. At every step of the process—whether conceiving, designing, making, maintaining, or repairing— we must always be concerned with the whole within which we are making anything. We look at this wholeness, absorb it, try to feel its deep structure.
2. We ask which kind of thing we can do next that will do the most to give this wholeness the most positive increase of life.
3. As we ask this question, we necessarily direct ourselves to centers, the units of energy within the whole, and ask which one center could be created (or extended or intensified or even pruned) that will most increase the life of the whole.
4. As we work to enhance this new living center, we do it in such a way as also to create or intensify (by the same action) the life of some larger center.
5. Simultaneously we also make at least one center of the same size (next to the one we are concentrating on), and one or more smaller centers—increasing their life too.
6. We check to see if what we have done has truly increased the life and feeling of the whole. If the feeling of the whole has not been deepened by the step we have just taken, we wipe it out. Otherwise we go on.
7. We then repeat the entire process, starting at step again, with the newly modified whole.
8. We stop altogether when there is no further step we can take that intensifies the feeling of the whole.

— (Christopher Alexander, The Nature of Poetic Order and its application to the problem of Locating Failures in Poems, Richard P. Gabriel, Stanford University)
Considering certain notions of these standards Manprasad Subba’s ‘The Primitive Village and Other Poems has been analysed from both the content capacity and the form inbuilt in the poem. His poems come up with certain monologue tones and there are certain imagists’ techniques that he applies in his poems, for instance:
“Thus a tree I stand always
unfolding myself
ever on a journey while standing…
No matter if someone with the eyes of electric bulb
looks at, but sees not, this openness of the tree.
I may not be seen as I am”
[page 7]
The entire tree is not looked up as a concrete object but the object has been dissapidated, fragmented - each fragment designating a different meaning to the object. A 'poetic thought' is a special kind of thought (involving a special kind of thinking) that is difficult to express and communicate accurately. At least, this is the view of many poets. Seamus Heaney has made the point (in discussion during a poetry reading at the Kent Arts Festival in 1986) that poets have to balance the conflicting claims of 'accuracy' and 'decency'. By this he meant that poets are primarily concerned with the accurate expression of 'poetic thoughts' and only secondarily with making such expression accessible to an audience.

2. The Primitive Village: In context to the long poetry:
The long poetry ‘Primitive Village’ is divided into three sections - section one, two and the epilogue. The first section deals with the primitive and savage human nature. It is also a depiction about an apocalyptic vicissitudes that entrenches and human beings from dimensional velocity. The village is very much like Eliot’s Wasteland but the difference that lies between ‘Wasteland’ and ‘Primitive village’ is that- Eliot tries to depict futility of human beings in the context of modern European society whereas Subba has tried to depict the primal passion, animality and rawness with human being in a universal context. Therefore Subba’s ‘Primitive Village’ is a place where ‘faith’ is tied to a nail which never functions with the mutuality amongst the residents of his village. The drastic strokes of words paint a very picture of the existence within his village which is actually like an ‘endless tunnel.’ Even the man’s own belief is lost and dimmed into his endless tunnel. The factor in this village is the ‘presentness’ where man is choked in insomnia like state. There are numerous illusions nailed into the time which seems constant and fixed; there is no going forward from this place, and this existence is like “shipping down on the hard surface of meaninglessness”. Life becomes very much absurd, there is no absolute reality, and every image shows the decentralized survival of every being. This decentred existence has been exemplified very well by Martin Heidegger in his philosophical work ‘Being and Time.’ ‘Being’ is always in the process of becoming but his ‘becoming’ in Subba’s ‘being’ seems to be constant or fixed:
“With this endlessness
has remained the same
every frenzied song and dance
composed over the corpses of
innumerable ecstasies in hypocrite theatres
And gatherings’   - page 53.
Heidegger in his philosophy explains that ‘Being’ is free from all worldly essences and in imperfections; this is similar to the Nietzschean concept of ‘Unbernansch’ and Kierkegaard’s notion of the ‘Holy Knight’. But Subba’s ‘being’ are caught in the imperfections of world hence they will never be able to transform into ‘Being’ (with capital B).  They lack the Nietzschean notion of ‘Transvaluation of values’ because Subba has made it clear in his After word – ‘with an inner urge to write a whole poem’ started the long poem Aadim Basti (The Primitive village). And for this, man with his fundamental attributes has been taken up as the theme. This poem is an observation of man’s eternal imperfection spread over the undivided stretch of time.’’ Subba has called such existence of people as “Man’s fertile imperfection’ which discards all the barricades of time division:

“This endless passing has remained unbroken
despite division of tense in grammar
yesterdays are always today and now
Today and now have ever been
a cold scarcity of each awakening.”
Time becomes just an assumed determinant that has no past, nor any future. It has been knotted into present and it is this present that has been elongated since moment immemorial.  Even Henry Bergson’s theory of ‘prima duree’ suggests that time is always internal and external. The internal time is the one that is within the mind of the people and the external time is the ‘clock’s time’. Subba might be more concerned about the ‘external time’ while he was writing this poem or he was closely thinking in terms of Einstein’s concept of ‘relativity’ where time becomes a relative component in association to the mass and speed of different objects.
“No need to talk of tomorrow
Has it ever come in our life ?
Only a mirage,
a doodle on sand,
an easy pretext to hold on to life.”
But still time has an unravelling influence upon the mankind. It makes or sets a routine in the life of every one of us. And he expresses this passing phase and appearing of routined version of time in a metaphorical way:
“The days and the nights
are only a tortoise’s head
frequently getting into and out of its shell
Or the face of a barren woman
covered and uncovered with burqa”
This fixity of time has never allowed life to be free. The radical individual freedom that is ones’ own recognition of one’s mortality has been lost somewhere. Jean Paul Sartre is the most commonly discussed existentialist who was writing after the World War II. Sartre has asserted that the key concept of existentialism is that the existence of a person predetermines his or her essence. The term ‘existence precedes essence’ subsequently became a maxim of the existentialist movement. According to Sartre, “Man first of all exists, encounters himself, surges up in the world and defines himself afterwards.’ Thus Sartre rejects what he calls ‘deterministic excuses’. Some sections of these poems try to come up with the deterministic excuses that have pushed back people to move towards the longer space of existence:

“ How man,
on the pretext of searching himself,
gets lost entering into the snail shell !
And bearing the heavy shell on the back
man moves around silently
squelching in thick mud
finding his self nowhere!”
A strong voice creeps in speaking about the importance of the individual – just like Beckett’s ‘Godot’, Eugene O Neill’s ‘Emperor Jones’, Defoe’s ‘Robinson Crusoe, Parijat’s ‘Sakambari’. The leading question about each of these characters is ‘what does it mean to be existing as a human being?” there is also a pressing question concerning what is right and wrong in a world of mortal chaos. There is the daunting issue of what constitutes a meaningful way of life in a world in which all talk of purposes has become obscure. There is a realization that the human concerns and human experience count in a world that has proven to be mostly knowable. A question can be posed: What does ‘the heavy shell on the back’ of man indicate? Is it despair? Is it alienation? Is it isolation? Or is it hollowness? These are multiple indignations but these are also the significant elements which people strive to overcome but will never be able to do so.  To break this shell means to overcome all the rules and regulations that operate on social, political, social, ethical, religious and moral grounds. It would be important to note that Nietzsche has raised something in context to the overcoming of boundaries and terms it as “Ubermansch” which in German means “to overcome” (some critics even call it ‘Superman) - the one who has gone beyond the moral, ethical, social religious and political restrictions. This is how one throws away the heavy shell on one’s back.
The poet also remarks about the ‘lack of communication’ amongst the individuals which has disabled a proper contact between them. Here each of these individuals is not able to understand one another or oneself because they never make an attempt to reach one another:
“we may speak for speaking sake
a heap of words
One can fill one’s own hollowness
with straw-like strings of sentences”
[page 60]
Words spoken here mean nothing because it is hollow as people never speak to establish a real contact rather just to fill up the vacuum:
“Why are these words that danced in corn-ear
now just a breakfast for the swarm of locusts?
Why can’t they turn in new leaves on the trees?”
[page 60]
There is no sympathy and compassion amongst the people- one needs to understand the pains and pleasures of others in order to establish a perfect bond but this mutuality is decrepit and full of malady. The distancing of one from the other are suggested in certain lines like:
“Sentences are but falling hairs from the heads!”
[page 60]
The falling is not a an instant phenomena; rather it is like a falling of hairs which depicts that it happens time and again and it cannot be recovered (as hair once fallen can never be gained). Same is the scenario for the spoken words and their impact upon the speaker and the receiver. The unfulfilled contact attempted through conversation and communication can be seen in lines like:
“Just go and listen
to irritating croaking of frogs
in the village gatherings.”
[page 60]
“Ears are often stormed
by the noise of scared ducks
and the brawls and barks of stray dogs”
[page 60]
Section two of the longer poem ‘The Primitive Village’ deviates from the pre-inscribed sensibility towards the subtle deprived scenario, here there is no evidence of primordial animal instinct of section one. Subba entails a fresh thought in section two. He uses the same stylistic affinity and imagistic prevalence only to show that the village is not only a place of hopelessness and negative vibes but it has the other side as well; the other side of this village is presented in section two-- the colour of the village changes, new aroma seems to enter just like the coin has flipped to the other side. The poet has artistically produced these dual standards in this long poem harnessing phases of this village. Manprasad Subba has claimed in his Afterword that:
“Even in the dense fog of mysteries he feels tickle of his soles urging him to move ahead. But those very feet, being tied with shackles of worldliness, are walking back and forth across the swamp of common human nature since the time he dwelt in cave.”
Hence, there is a certain tinge of hope and looking ahead anoxia that still lingers along inside this village and the villagers despite all the vicissitudes:
“man always strives to break
the formidable fencing of his own flaws
Refusing to be suppressed he struggles
to push away the suppression of his own weakness”
[page 67]
Concepts can never be neutralised, neither can they be denied but they can always be argued and modified - the striving energy that Subba presents is the Heidegger’s discourse ‘being is always in the process of becoming’ which came out from the philosophical notion of phenomenology admixed with existentialism. The most balanced word that the poet uses here is “suppression of his own weakness”.  He does not say ‘discarding his own weaknesses’ because weakness is a necessity for striving, it is a measuring rod for struggle, weakness determines the strength. So one cannot completely cut off or do away with weakness. That is the reason ‘suppression’ is an apt act of overcoming of weakness that brings the continuity of human struggle. If there would be no weakness there would be no desire to win over that weakness and move forward. Hence enacting the momentum of weaknesses men transform themselves into something more than what he frames into. In-framing and out-framing of self and ideological counteractions coalesces with a proportionate and relative action. The ‘formidable fencing of his own flaws’ has a strong aesthetic compatibility with the universal human entity.
The endless striving that has been manifested in the poem is not only a physical striving, it is not just the physical entity of the man but the discourse traces the spiritual realm as well. The poet makes it clear that people are striving for spiritual recognition as well. The larger spiritual self is essential for the formation of existential identity:
“Man wants to slough off his meek self
Tirelessly he battles with the confines of his body.”
Composite ideas automatically stretches over these lines and it can be pondered that if man wants to head towards the perfection then he has to escape away from the physical pleasures and pains. Tillich’s formulation expresses this point beautifully- he speaks of our anxiety due to the threat of non-being. The forms of non-being are many and various and each prefigures the ultimate loss of being that is death and contingency of being that is birth. Both of the chance exerts and extreme situations of life make evident that the threat of non-being can cause us anxiety. Being human is finding oneself thrown into the world with no clear logical, ontological or moral structure.
Discussing about the meaning and absurdity Sartre spoke of an unfulfillable desire for complete fulfilment and thereby expressed the meaning of absurdity. Meaning must therefore be constructed through courageous choice in the face of this absurd situation. This kind of choice cannot be understood as achieving moral certainty; rather it is moral heroism within an essentially morally vague and chaotic world. So, the importance of choice becomes very important and through this choice man can transcend to any sphere:
Octaves of surrender and submission
Do re mi fa so la ti do
Do ti la so fa  mi re do
He keeps composing endless variety of tunes
Attempting to transcend the extreme scale,
aspires to reach no one knows where.
[Page 68]
Each desire and aspiration is like a notation of music and man is free to make a choice how would he wish to be played. Each tune contributes towards composition of complete music/harmony. The poet might also be indicating towards the construction of harmony out of chaos.
To gain perfection, completeness and harmony is not an instant task but it is a gradual process and this gradual process is expressed in a metaphorical technique:
Man exerts to be the full moon
though he knows the moon cannot save
its stark nudity even beyond one night!
1st 2nd 3rd …Full moon night
Man’s journey towards perfection is like moon’s different phases until the night of a full moon appears. It is an increate thought that Subba is acquainted with. He even builds up nihilistic philosophical linkage:
“If wholeness is contained in void
man struggles to expand all over it
but does not want to be void himself
and dares to go even beyond void”
[page 69]
The self awareness sometimes stretches unto self exhalation in this primitive village, the villagers are sometimes overfilled with self vanity and sometimes they are turned up into non entity:
“Sometimes he’s Narcissus in water charmed by himself!
Sometimes a salt-grain in water invisible to himself!!”
[page 71]
There is also a conflict between two opposing forces, two contradictory elements in the village. This is the very essence of this village and the villagers. The last stanza of section two will explain this notion more properly:
“where man is absorbed in giving forms to formless,
where man gets soaked
with words dripping from the eyes of speechless,
where man rises Phoenix from his own ash heap,
where Robert Bruce gathers himself
after witnessing spider’s journey…”
[page 75]
But finally in the epilogue the poet has claimed that this primitive village is a confluence or a composite of both evil and goodness, it is an adjoining site of both the animalistic and the aspiring beings. The best lines that express this is dual core tendency of the village is:
The village
dimmed by the haze of noises
where conflicts pull man until the shirt is torn
… …
and sometimes with the torn shirt on
smiles like a cloudless day.

3. Poet and the Translator in Conclusion:
In conclusion the commendable issue to be discussed is Manprasad Subba’s art of translation. He has translated his own poems from Nepali to English; these are languages that belong to different linguistic family. It is perhaps axiomatic to say that translation is as old
as language, for the different language communities render translation mandatory for their interaction. With translation as an indispensable activity there emerged diverse theories and theoretical reflections to guide it. This diversity stems from the diverse perspectives and approaches to translation with corollary of a plethora of definitions.
There has been a plethora of definitions which E. Nida (1964: 161-164) has elaborately surveyed . He rightly elucidates:

“Definitions of proper translating are almost as numerous and varied as the persons who
have undertaken to discuss the subject. This diversity is in a sense quite
understandable; for there are vast differences in the materials translated, in
the purpose of the publication, and in the needs of the prospective audience.”

Manprasad Subba has deliberately focused on the various trends in his translation capability  with the oldest ‘literal’ vs (versus) ‘free’. Others subsume ‘literary’ vs ‘non-literary’, semantic vs communicative, static vs dynamic, among others. He shows and imparts pairs, concerns the closeness, sometimes referred to as fidelity or faithfulness to the ST (source text). This type tends to emphasize the inseparability of form from content. Secondly, it can also be seen that the source message has been made conveyable in a different form.

Ro man Jakobson (1959 in Schulte and Biguenet, 1992:145) distinguishes three ways of interpreting a verbal sign: it may be translated into other signs of the same language, into another language, or into another code that is nonverbal system of symbols. These three types are succinctly put as follows:
1. Intralingual translation or rewording : It is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of other signs of the same language.
2. Interlingual translation or translation proper : It is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language.
3. Intersemiotic translation or transmutation : It is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of non-verbal signs.

Subba has made a great balance between this interlingual and intersemiotic translation and this shows his capability and command over both the source language and the target language which has proved his translated edition of his Nepali poems into English a success.